Islamic Foundations of European Civilization

By Ehsan Butt, President



Goodbye is a contraction for old English phrase "God be with you" which is the exact equivalent  of the Arabic phrase Fee Amanillah في أمانِ الله (Go in the protection of God) in Muslim daily use.  You say in English "bless you" when someone sneezes Muslims use its exact equivalent Yerham Kumullah  يرحمكم الله  (Allah will Bless You). Muslim derive these traditions from the teachings of Prophet Mohammad SAW who lived in the sixth century.


Summary

The rise and fall of civilizations is a result of fundamental transformations in their individual members regarding their worldviews, beliefs, motivations for reformations etc. The current state of the people has reached through radical changes. However the people who are at the helms of affairs today as always are inclined to preserve their privileges and Status quo by promoting the idea of the unchanging world that has been and will remain as it is now. History teaches lessons, makes people smart, not a good idea if you intend to control people!  Distorted history is just lullaby, safe, and provides nothing! and has nothing to fear! 






Brotherly Relations Between Mughals of India & British Kings

Mainstream Edu Academia (MEA) has Forged a false tale of Islamophobic history of Europe which denies abundant evidences of Muslim-English Mutual Love & Friendship. MEA serves those who try to incite divisions among fellow humans, apprehensions, enmities, conflicts and wars

1617 Muslim Moghul King Jahangir Wrote Back in Reply A Brotherly Letter, that has survived, to James I, King of England, Giving English the Most Favored Nation Status,

The Records of such cordial relationship including letters from English kings to Muslims have been destroyed by those who became custodians of those records in Europe.
Muslim Moghul King Jahangir wrote:

"I have given my general command to all the kingdoms and ports of my dominions to receive all the merchants of the English nation as the subjects of my friend; that in what place soever they choose to live, they may have free liberty without any restraint; and at what port soever they shall arrive, that neither Portugal nor any other shall dare to molest their quiet; and in what city soever they shall have residence, I have commanded all my governors and captains to give them freedom answerable to their own desires; to sell, buy, and to transport into their country at their pleasure.

For confirmation of our love and friendship, I desire your Majesty to command your merchants to bring in their ships of all sorts of rarities and rich goods fit for my palace; and that you be pleased to send me your royal letters by every opportunity, that I may rejoice in your health and prosperous affairs; that our friendship may be interchanged and eternal.

Your Majesty is learned and quick-sighted as a prophet, and can conceive so much by few words that I need write no more.

The God of heaven give you and us increase of honor."


https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/india/1617englandindies.asp




European Public Dispositions and Sensibilities 


Evidently Radically Different from Now
and Unimaginably Similar to the Practicing Muslims

Marian exiles : Iconoclast Monotheistic Europeans Like Early Muslims Against Idolatry 

Queen Mary I 's Spanish trinitarian Church promotion initiatives were boldly resisted by protestants Marian exiles  despite severe persecutions of the resistance leaders


In 1553, Edward VI, Henry VIII's son, died, and his Catholic half-sister assumed the throne as Mary I of England. Mary tried to unify England with the Catholic Church. Prominent English Protestants were burned at the stake in incidents called the Marian Persecutions. About 800 people, called the Marian exiles, left the country and settled in Frankfurt, Zurich, Geneva, and other areas of continental Europe. Such a forceful resistance from the population against the ruling regime prove the claims of resistance leaders that they are struggling to save their ancestral tradition.

British Iconoclasm: Years 1600-60 were an age of reaction from public  on introduction of spanish church due to peoples long held Islamic Religious Sentiments regarding statues, icons and human figures of any form in places of religious worship
“Iconoclasm” refers to the destruction of icons or  images or hostility toward visual representations in general. 

"In 1600 the educated Englishman's mind and world were more than half medieval ;  by 1660 they were more than half modern." p 9 , English Literature In The Earlier Seventeenth Century 1600 1660, Bush Douglas. Oxford University Press, Amen House, London, 1959 , PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 


British History

August 1643 An Ordinance for the utter demolishing, removing and taking away of all Monuments of Superstition or Idolatry.



History of Parliament Trust
Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660
C.H. Firth, R.S. Rait (eds)
1911
Introduction
265-266 

Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660 (1911), pp. 265-266


"The Lords and Commons in Parliament taking into their serious considerations how well pleasing it is to God, and conduceable to the blessed Reformation in his Worship, so much desired by both Houses of Parliament, that all Monuments of Superstition or Idolatry should be removed and demolished, "


The  ordinance of August 1643 against 'all monuments of superstition and idolatry' was followed by the devastations of William Dowsing in the college chapels and parish churches (December—January 1643–4). (fn. 118) In January 1644 a parliamentary ordinance entrusted the regulation of the University to Manchester, who was to appoint a committee to eject those deemed unfit for their places, and to sequester their goods. Puritans, were members of a major group of English-speaking Protestants, alarmed by the growth of the royal church of Spanish kings in their country  during the 16th and 17th centuries. City of London lead the strongholds of the Puritan resistance.






May 1643 London England , in the presence of parliamentary troops and authorities Cheapside Cross was publicly destroyed. Later a huge bonfire was made where the statutes of gods, saints and popes were cast into the fire, burnt and melted.

P 119, Puritan Iconoclasm During the English Civil War,  By Julie Spraggon, Boydell Press, 2003,  http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1349283/1/340127.pdf




The beginnings of English Puritan iconoclasm are traced from Protestant Iconoclasm in Netherlands
where On August 10, 1566 the monastery of St. Lawrence was stormed inside and completely destroyed 
http://www.engelfriet.net/Alie/Aad/protestanten.htm


People in Scotland Introduced to Pork and Pig-eating recently
Scottish Cultural Survey of 1935 Reveals


"Fishermen dislike reference being made to the pig in connection with their work"


"There are still thousands of Highlanders and groups of Lowlanders who refuse to keep pigs or to partake of their flesh"


"Sir Munko cannot abide pork, no more than the King's most sacred majesty, nor my Lord Duke Lennox, nor Lord Dalgarno...But the Scots never eat pork.."


"A hundred curses on the swine eaters, who know neither decency nor civility!"


SCOTTISH PORK TABOO, SCOTTISH FOLK-LORE AND FOLK LIFE, STUDIES IN RACE CULTURE AND TRADITION, BY DONALD A. MACKENZIE ,1935
www.royaldunfermline.com/Resources/SCOTTISH_PORK_TABOO.pdf




Thomas Paine(d 1809)'s Pure Monotheism/Deism Was Mainstream Islam in Thirteenth Century


Baydawi(d1286) a great Islamic scholar of mainstream sunnis explains that sound logical reasoning is sufficient for knowledge of God & there is no need for priest or imam

Baydawi(d 1286)'s writings survived and translated English, see p158 http://for above in:
Nature, Man and God in Medieval Islam Abd Allah Baydawi's Text, Tawali Al-Anwar Min Matali Al-Anzar, Along With Mahmud Isfahani's Commentary, Matali Al-Anzar
 goo.gl/6lI4xk

History of Athens Famous Grand Mosque distorted to suit new clash of civilization history




https://twitter.com/Ehsan_Butt/status/756315780615143424/photo/1





Ottoman Empire socially, culturally and financially touched the lives of English people directly, literally shaping their tastes and the future development of the country.
14 June 2010 an exhibition by the British Council highlighted a 17th century Ottoman, Evliya Celebi, a world traveller, a story-teller, a man of letters, a Muslim, a soldier, a musician and a global citizen.

A document of the time lists major imports to England:
"The commodities they bringe from those partes are all sortes of Spices, Rawe Silke, Appoticarie drugs, India blewe, and Cotton Woll, as also yarne and cloaths made thereof, Galles, Currants, Sweet Oyle, Sope, Quiltes, Carpete and divers other commodities."
One contemporary commentator reckoned that between 1590 and 1630 the number of people working in the city and suburbs of London alone who were employed in the "winding and twisting only of forraign raw silk" rose from 300 to "over fourteen thousand souls".
Coffee and politics
Coffee was another pivotal import transforming the London landscape physically and intellectually.
Coffee houses in England were seen by many as dangerous places of debate where radical ideas could be exchanged and debated while writers such as Samuel Pepys and Alexander Pope regularly visited coffee houses wearing the latest Turkish fashion.
Ottoman influence not only held sway over everyday life in Europe by introducing such goods as coffee, but also shaped world politics.



Ottoman British Historical Alliance

Ottoman help was asked by the British against Spanish Ramada and British came to push back Russian onslaught on Turkish territories in Crimean war from October 1853 - February 1856.



Islamic Beliefs of English Protestants and Early Puritans

Puritans migrated from England to America to save their ancestral belief and practices. A famous politician from their descendants who represented America in Europe was  Benjamin Franklin  1705 -1790 . 



$US 100 currency bill (note) bears picture of Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin wrote in a letter to Ezra Stiles, President of Yale College, March 9,  1790


“Here is my creed. I believe in one God, the Creator of the Universe. That he governs it by His providence. That He aought to be worshipped. That the most acceptable service we render Him is doing good to His other children. That the soul of man is immortal, and will be treated with justice in another life respecting its conduct in this.” 


Ref: p 8 The Theological works of Thomas Paine, Thomas Paine, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, J. P. Mendum, Boston USA, 1858



European  Royal agents in the Education and Church has endeavored to destroy or neutralized the protestant historical literaure through forgery


Protestant were protesting introduction of Christianity in Islamised Europe. The American forefathers, the descendants of puritans, indifference and disbelief in judeo-christian literature proves that much promoted in the literature the puritan association with Bible is a myth forged later when almost all literary production sources were conquered by royal Spanish church sympathizers and activists. Today essentially all the available literature, with extremely rare exceptions, is that which was written by royal Spanish church sympathizers and activists. These Spanish church psudo academics has done a clean job of completely destroying or forging the puritan separtist literatre filling it with Spanish church propaganda.  Nothing can be found in the literature today for a human movement with the effects power upheavals so widespread spanning continents of protestant separatist puritans 



An Interest Free Sharia Based Economy of the Islamic England

"The laws against usury before the arrival of William the Conqueror in 1066 were very strict. In 899 King Alfred (871-99) directed that the property of usurers be forfeited, while in 1050 Edward the Confessor (1042-66) decreed not only forfeiture, but that a usurer be declared an outlaw and banished for life. "  
In Praise of Medieval England
A golden age recalled by Stephen Mitford Goodson
   

http://www.spearhead.com/0507-smg.html


"At common law a usurious contract could not be enforced, and usury appears to have been an indictable  offense, the punishment for it being fines and imprisonment. The fact is that from the earliest recorded times until the later Middle Ages even interest was forbidden"

Background of a Gray Area in Law: The Checkered Career of Usury, by  J. L. Bernstein of the New Jersey Bar (Paterson),American Bar Association Journal,
September,P 846-850 1965 a Vol. 51 849

Edward Gibbon,  (1737-1794), English rationalist historian and a Deist praises Islam as the minimalist faith. For Gibbon, Islam was a faith without mythology or miracles, the religion most compatible with human reason:
"The prophet of Mecca rejected the worship of idols and men, of stars and planets, on the rational principle that whatever rises must set, that whatever is born must die, that whatever is corruptible must decay and perish. In the author of the universe, his rational enthusiasm confessed and adored an infinite and eternal being, without form or place, without issue or similitude, present to our most secret thoughts, existing by the necessity of his own nature, and deriving from himself all moral and intellectual perfection. These sublime truths, thus announced in the language of the prophet, are firmly held by his disciples, and defined with metaphysical precision by the interpreters of the Koran. A philosophic Theist might subscribe the popular creed of the Mahometans: a creed too sublime perhaps for our present faculties."
The history of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, Vol 3 p375, Edward Gibbon
Harper & Brothers, 1847
http://goo.gl/1u57Uw
Gibbon's search focussed on sources and reasons for the present world, including looking for the original Muslims & Islam.
Later scholars, changed the focus to the present, that the original Islam and Quranic interpretations are not directly related in the modern times, such as Thomas Patrick Hughes and Edward Sell, both from
England, were missionaries in India with the Church Missionary Society and made major
contributions to the Western understanding of Islam. They argued that Gibbon's observations about Islam are no more relevant today because in Muslim theory and practice today Qur'an has practically been relegated to secondary status, primary being blind following of the ancestral traditions.


European's Heart Brimming with the Qur'anic Theme of Taqwa, Love and Fear of God, the Single Supreme Master of the Universe


A Major Motivation behind the French Revolution Was popular Disgust Against Trinitarian Church and Its Promotion of Polytheism and Associates of God

The Architect, Ideologist, main writer  and leader of the revolutionary movement Maximilien Robespierre celebrated a day  (8 June 1794) of the Supreme Being(Allah) and delivered a speech after the success of the revolution announcing that from now on the pure Monotheism will be the state religion of France:



 "The leaders of this revolution attempted, perhaps more than any other revolutionary leaders before or since, to totally transform human society in every way. For instance the Revolution abolished the traditional calendar with its Christian associations. Some were anti-religion, but Robespierre was interested in religion, and promoted a state cult, first of Supreme Reason and then later of the Supreme Being. This a case of Deism being made a state religion.
The failure of the revolution to transform society totally had provided matter for political thinkers ever since. 


Text of the speech delivered to the French on the French Day  of the Supreme Being(Allah) (8 June 1794) :

"The day forever fortunate has arrived, which the French people have consecrated to the Supreme Being. Never has the world which He created offered to Him a spectacle so worthy of His notice. He has seen reigning on the earth tyranny, crime, and imposture. He sees at this moment a whole nation, grappling with all the oppressions of the human race, suspend the course of its heroic labors to elevate its thoughts and vows toward the great Being who has given it the mission it has undertaken and the strength to accomplish it. 


Is it not He whose immortal hand, engraving on the heart of man the code of justice and equality, has written there the death sentence of tyrants? Is it not He who, from the beginning of time, decreed for all the ages and for all peoples liberty, good faith, and justice?

He did not create kings to devour the human race. He did not create priests to harness us, like vile animals, to the chariots of kings and to give to the world examples of baseness, pride, perfidy, avarice, debauchery, and falsehood. He created the universe to proclaim His power. He created men to help each other, to love each other mutually, and to attain to happiness by the way of virtue.


It is He who implanted in the breast of the triumphant oppressor remorse and terror, and in the heart of the oppressed and innocent calmness and fortitude. It is He who impels the just man to hate the evil one, and the evil man to respect the just one. It is He who adorns with modesty the brow of beauty, to make it yet more beautiful. It is He who makes the mother's heart beat with tenderness and joy. It is He who bathes with delicious tears the eyes of the son pressed to the bosom of his mother. It is He who silences the most imperious and tender passions before the sublime love of the fatherland. It is He who has covered nature with charms, riches, and majesty. All that is good is His work, or is Himself. Evil belongs to the depraved man who oppresses his fellow man or suffers him to be oppressed.


The Author of Nature has bound all mortals by a boundless chain of love and happiness. Perish the tyrants who have dared to break it! "


France Pays Homage to Islam   Elaib Harvey

1798 Napoleon proclaimed in Egypt "French are also sincere Muslims” “God is great and Mohammed is his prophet.”



 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe(1749 - 1832)

 Goethe the famous German writer, George Eliot called him Germany's greatest man of letters, expressed his Love of the Qur'an:


Whether the Qur'an is from eternity
    I do not enquire.
Whether the Qur'an was created 
    I do not know.
...
The drinker, whatever the case,
Has a fresher glimpse of God's face.

(Goethe(1749 - 1832)West-östlicher Divan)



THE ISLAMIC ORIGINS OF THE COMMON LAW
   
By    JOHN A. MAKDISI*


Henry II created the common law in the twelfth century, which  resulted in revolutionary changes in the English legal system, chief among which were the action of debt, the assize of novel disseisin, and trial by jury. The sources of these three institutions have long been ascribed to influences from other legal systems such as Roman law. Professor Makdisi has uncovered new evidence which suggests that these institutions may trace their origins  directly to Islamic legal institutions. The evidence lies in the  unique identity of characteristics of these three institutions with those of their Islamic counterparts, the similarity of function and structure between Islamic and common law, and the historic opportunity for transplants from Islam through Sicily.

North Carolina Law Review, 06/1999, Volume 77, pp. 1635 - 2377 
* Dean and Professor of Law, Loyola University New Orleans School of Law. B.A.,
Harvard College, 1971; J.D., University of Pennsylvania Law School,
 1974; S.J.D., Harvard Law School, 1985.
 
This Article develops a thesis on the origins of the common law that was first
explored in my article entitled An Inquiry into Islamic Influences During the Formative
Period of the Common Law, in ISLAMIC LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE 135 (Nicholas Heer
ed., 1990). The thesis in its present form was the topic of lectures at Duke University
(Feb. 19, 1997), Loyola University New Orleans (Apr. 4, 1997), and the American
Oriental Society (Apr. 6, 1998)

____________________

Common Law's "benefit of doubt" came from Muslim jurist's advanced & regulated system for unique leniency to accused

Early Islam is the Place of Birth of Capitalism - Professor Benedikt Koehler of Legatum Institute



European Industrial Revolution Began as Green Agricultural Revolution Cultivated by the Islamic Civilization

Kitab al-filaha al-andalusiya(The Book of Andalusian Agriculture) by Yahya ibn al-Awwam al-Ishbili. Translated into Spanish and annotated by Joseph Antonio Banqueri (Madrid, 1802). The book consists of 35 chapters dealing with agronomy, cattle and poultry raising and beekeeping. It deals with 585 plants; explains the cultivation of more than 50 fruit trees; and includes many valuable observations on soils, manures, plant grafting, and plant diseases.

https://www.google.ca/search?q=Islamic+Civilization+Green+Revolution&espv=2&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjZjbyDlNDJAhWyjIMKHV_tCP0Q_AUIBygB&biw=1680&bih=949#imgrc=Ye_Kn9nvf-wMcM%3A

Watson, who, without a doubt, wrote the best works on Islamic farming, in one of his shorter works, appropriately entitled ‘A Medieval Green Revolution,
http://alfutuhat.com/islamiccivilization/Agriculture/Central%20Agriculture.html


American Founding Fathers were not Christians
The Greatest American Founding Father Thomas Paine (d 1809) wrote:
"Of all the systems of religion that ever were invented, there is no more derogatory to the Almighty, more unedifiying to man, more repugnant to reason, and more contradictory to itself than this thing called Christianity. Too absurd for belief, too impossible to convince, and too inconsistent for practice, t renders the heart torpid or produces only atheists or fanatics. As an engine of power, it serves the purpose of despotism, and as ameans of wealth, the avarice of priests, but so far as respects the good of man in general it leads to nothing here or hereafter". [Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason]



The 1796 Treaty with Tripoli states that the United States was "not in any sense founded on the Christian religion" (see the image on the right). This was not an idle statement meant to satisfy muslims-- they believed it and meant it. This treaty was written under the presidency of George Washington and signed under the presidency of John Adams.

Ethan Allen, Revolutionary War Hero
"I have generally been denominated a Deist, the reality of which I never disputed, being conscious I am no Christian, except mere infant baptism makes me one; and as to being a Deist, I know not strictly speaking, whether I am one or not." 
                                    preface, Reason the Only Oracle of Man
 

"The Bible is not my book, nor Christianity my profession."
                        -Spoken by Abraham Lincoln, quoted by Joseph Lewis

The Third U.S. President 

Thomas Jefferson(1743–1826)



Writing about the non-Christian origins of the  English Common Law:


"Christianity neither is, nor ever was, a part of the common law."

The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association of
the United States, Published 1904, pages 90-91
http://foundingfathersquotes.blogspot.ca/2007/07/thomas-jefferson-on-common-law.html



"The very idea of trinity, that is common to the Vedas and other bibles, not being a plurality of polytheism, is an absurdity, sophistry, subterfuge, an evasion of most outrageous pretentions." p-98 Vaiden, Thomas J. , Rational religion and morals, New York, 1852





The Kingdom of Morocco under the leadership of Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdullah, known as King Mohammed III, was the first country in the world to recognise the United States of America as an independent nation in 1777





*****************************************************************************

Muslim King Offa and his Muslim Kingdom of Mercia in England

AD 773-96




Islamic Kalima" There is no God but Allah" inscribed on English coins of King Offa

Gold Islamic dinar of English Muslim King Offa.
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/cm/g/gold_imitation_dinar_of_offa.aspx
http://nayzak.deviantart.com/art/Gold-coin-of-king-Offa-291219688


This unique gold coin of Offa, king of Mercia, is one of the most remarkable English coins of the Middle Ages. Its design is similar to a gold dinar of the caliph al-Mansur, ruler of the Islamic Abbasid dynasty.

Modern European scholars have shown their ingenuity in finding excuses to deny the obvious that Mercia was a Muslim kingdom. The same scholars very comfortably declare every seemingly human figure a figure of the Christ and any two lines crossing symbol of cross and sign of Christianity. Anyone looking at their excuses, explained below,  to deny the obvious will find that they leave textbook standards of historical evaluation that they use everywhere for the special case of judging these coins of king Offa, just to deny the obvious that these coins present an evidence of Islam of Offa and of Islamic foundations of Mercia.


********************************************
British Museum Post with following wording indicates distortion of information:
"Gold imitation dinar of Offa

Kingdom of Mercia, England, AD 773-96

An Islamic inscription on an English coin

"Although the Arabic inscription is not copied perfectly, it is close enough that it is clear that the original from which it was copied was struck in the Islamic year AH 157 (AD 773-74). It seems that the engraver had no understanding of the Arabic script: the name and title OFFA REX has been inserted upside down in relation to the Arabic inscription.
The purpose of the coin is uncertain. It has been suggested that it was made as a gift for the pope (it was first recorded in Rome), but it is unlikely that any Christian king would have sent the pope a coin with and inscription stating that 'there is no God but Allah alone', however badly the Arabic had been copied. It is more likely that it was designed for use in trade; Islamic gold dinars were the most important coinage in the Mediterranean at the time. Offa's coin looked enough like the original that it would be readily accepted in southern Europe, while at the same time his own name was clearly visible."

****************************
The above mentioned British Museum Post about "Gold imitation dinar of Offa seems to be designed to distract people's attention from the obvious natural conclusions of any free open minded person to favorably consider the idea of the "Islamic Foundations of European Civilization". British Museum title uses the word imitation that characterizes counterfeit coins forged by unofficially without permission and have of no real market value. Wording tries to use irrelevant and far fetched excuses to argue that Islam and Arabic language could never have been familiar things in Mercia at that time. There is nothing unique or special with coins having same or similar design minted by different countries that can reduce association of such coins with those countries. The post is crafted to present the coin as unworthy of attention and to suggest that the whole project of its manufacture, related decision with investment of time and money and labor of minting of the new coin was done by Mercia without much serious and long term objectives.

It's clear the project included actually designing, manufacture of dies and minting is an evidence of a serious long term objective unless some clear evidence shows that Mercia king was somehow forced to complete that elaborate project or they have been doing such projects time to time for fun.

The comment that "engraver had no understanding of the Arabic" can only hold any element of truth if one knows the person engraving and his training or it is categorically refuted that the mutual orientation of the two language text elements is absolutely without any intentional plan for the design of the whole image. The design shows that the sacred Arabic words in this way envelop and stay above the English words while coin is held in any of the languages orientation. This could convey their reverence for the Arabic words. 

British museum's phrase " purpose of the coin is uncertain" is most remarkable as such a question is only expected from only little innocent babies who have no idea of the purpose of god coins. This comment shows the British Museum's writers false confidence that he has proved the unworthiness trivial value of the coin.

British museum's phrase "It has been suggested that it was made as a gift for the pope (it was first recorded in Rome), but it is unlikely that any Christian king would have sent the pope a coin" takes it granted that Pope's establishment in a place named Rome at that time, AD 773-74, is an established fact. However the scholars who look at the related evidences and are not swayed by repeated propaganda do not believe Church had any reliable history of till around fifteenth century.
see

British museum includes their assertion about Offa being "Christian king" in the context of this coin shows their refusal to allow people review the alternate view of Offa being Muslim that is consistent with the evidence of this coin. 

The coin supports Islamic foundations of European civilization that is an alternate to the Vatican church propaganda which has been destroying real evidences and forging fake literature and other items to suggest lies that Pre-Islamic civilization Europe had widespread Catholic Christianity.

Muslims arrival in Europe is detailed by Arab historians and it gives no evidence that early Muslims ever came across with Catholic Christians i.e. people believing in trinity having pope and using Crucifix or have stories of some founding saint dying on cross. What they encountered was the presence of some authorities and troops loyal to Constantinople, the real Rome. The earliest Christians they came across in Europe were the Christians of Nijrani Najranite or Yeminite origin who came from, Nijran/Najran, a city south of Makkah, and Yemen areas Arabia in the wake of Arab arrival and establishment of new institutions and economic revival in Europe. Many of those Christians had first migrated from Nijran and Yemen to Kufa and Basara and Baghdad, Palestine and then to Europe in the wake of Muslims.

Quranic accounts of Trinitarin Christians who associated a son to God is all related to those Nijranite ang Yemenites. Makkah and those Christians had rivalry from the time immemorial. Constantinople, Romans, and Ethiopian Negas king had always friendly relations with Makka. The Constantinople visit of  Imra-ul-Qais the famous pre-Islamic poet  and help by Roman Emperor to restore his kingdom, Abu sufyan's meetings with Roman Emperor are just few examples of mutual relations of Makki elete with Constantinople. Similarly the great grandfather of prophet Mohammad's vist to Ethiopia and meeting with thr Nagus king Al Najashi (Negus). Roman emperor Constantine's conversion from Monotheism to Christian trinity if early modern era forgery.

Constantinople, Romans, and Muslim shared monotheism and iconoclasm beliefs and traditions. Roman elite saw the loss of their special leadership status and resisted Islam however Roman population who did have that issue quickly became allies of Muslims and accepted Islam without any considerable resistance.

Recently Gary Brown brought to light a peculiar instance. He mentioned that, around 1173 the Muslim policy of toleration and the persistent intolerance of many Christian factions had important consequences which are strikingly illustrated by the words of no less a personage than the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople. Addressing the Byzantine Mutual Misperceptions: The Historical Context of Muslim-Western Relations Emperor Manuel I, who was contemplating a religious union with the western Church of Rome, the Patriarch said: “Let the Muslim be my master in outward things rather than the Latin dominate me in matters of the spirit. For if I am subject to the Muslim, at least he will not force me to share his faith. But if I have to be ... united with the [Latin] Roman Church, I may have to separate myself from my God.”
[Mutual Misperceptions: The Historical Context of Muslim-Western Relations, by Gary Brown, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Commonwealth of Australia, Current Issues Brief No. 7 2001–02, Foreign Affairs, ISSN 1440-2009] (http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/CIB/2001-02/02cib07.pdf)



Constantinople was the real center of Rome

 Constantinople is the Seat of Rome.  "The term, “the Byzantine Empire”, is a misnomer." 
 There is no reason to continue to refer to the “Byzantine Empire”  beyond the fact that this mistake has been made and (unjustifiably)  endorsed for so long"  "There never was a Byzantine Empire.  It is a historical fallacy.
  The empire that finally fell to Turks in 1453  was the Roman Empire.  We should call it what it was and give it the credit that it has deserved for so long."  After conquering Constantinople, Mehmet the Great became 
  Kayser-i Rūm “Caesar of Rome” 

[Prof. Charles Collins, " There Was No Byzantine Empire", Volume 2, Issue 1, 2014  The Norman Levan Center for the Humanities]
http://www2.bakersfieldcollege.edu/lhr/2-1/CharlesCollins.html







  ****************************





More surviving evidence Arabic Coins in Europe :
(There is much more evidence of coins not included here)
A Scandinavian hoard of coins found in Croydon c.875 included three Kufic coins, all three are Abbasid dirhams: two of Harun ar-Rashid (786-809) and one of al-Wathik (842-7). Muslim coinage substantially arrived in England via Scandinavia and many hoards have been found within the Danelaw (North and East of England) and date back to late ninth and early tenth century.

Two dinars dating from 724-743 were found on a beach at Eastbourne in Sussex.


Silver ring discovered in Viking-era grave has Arabic inscription



The woman’s grave dated to about 850 AD, in  Birka, Sweden, Scandinavia has Arabic inscription. The ring, which has an inscription that says “To Allah” or “For Allah” in Kufic Arabic, is physical evidence suggesting there was direct contact between the Vikings of Sweden and the Muslim world,

http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/ring-discovered-viking-era-grave-has-arabic-inscription-002778

Vikings and Muslims had Similar Fate in Europe
after Normans subjugated the important muslim kingdoms Sicily they came back to England, a Muslim ally. Viking helped English though was not so successful. English history now terms these Viking help as Viking Raids! to be grateful! while Normans are described with respect.. Norman Invasion!
Year 1066, the Battle of Hastings , is considered the end of Vikings which gives a clue that some Vikings, may be the top elite, was present in the war to help English.
http://news.yale.edu/2013/03/08/vikings-yale-historian-looks-myths-vs-history
http://www.battlefieldstrust.com/resource-centre/viking/campainpageview.asp?pageid=540
http://www.britannia.com/history/articles/normvik.html
http://www.britannia.com/history/hastings.html




Archaeologists found 'silver treasure' a few years ago in Wieringen, which was inhabited by Vikings during part of the 9th century. The treasure includes Abbasid dirhams, proof of the extraordinary inter connectivity and long distance trade (MEE/Jan Keulen) - See more at: http://www.middleeasteye.net/in-depth/features/vikings-and-abbasids-worlds-apart-interconnected-965352085#sthash.ZkBjlklX.dpuf

Islamic Coin Hoards and the Trade Routes: How Dirham Reached the North by Dr. Aram Vardanyan, Institute of Oriental Studies, Yerevan 0019, Armenia

The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge, UK coins finds collection database website search, Islamic, shows about four thousand coins ranging from the earliest Islamic period to the Ottomans.  It includes a coin of  al-Qadir billah, the `Abbasid caliph who assumed power in 381/991.

http://webapps.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/explorer


Related References.
Early Medieval Monetary History: Studies in Memory of Mark Blackburn, Dr Rory Naismith, Dr Martin Allen, Dr Elina Screen, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., Dec 28, 2014
SHORT ARTICLES AND NOTES TRIBRACH PENNIES OF EADBERHT ‘PRÆN’ OF KENT ANDEADWALD OF EAST ANGLIA, RORY NAISMITH,

 A Islamic coin of Kufic kind from about a century earlier than the above was collected from the surface of an early medieval street of  Winchester England in August 1964 is described in the study given below:


Kufic Coin, by Helen Mitchell Brown and Rory Naismith, Section p 695-698, in "Winchester Studies 8: The Winchester Mint: And Coins and Related Finds from the Excavations of 1961-71" By Martin Biddle, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Apr 19, 2012

Similarlly a large number of Islamic silver coins dating back to the 8th century CE. were unearthed near the river Ribble at Cuerdale, England called the Cuerdale hoard with coins belonging to a period between 905 and 910 CE  considered left by Vikings.  Ref: Kufic Coins from Cuerdale hoard,

The Evidences Presented here are Those That Survived

Since the decay and fall of Muslim Imarat, states in Europe the new kings and their cronies especially the Catholic Church always feared from the history being transmitted,  popular uprisings and Islam regaining its previous image etc. The evidences have been continuously destroyed, books burned, and the real significance and information about the new discoveries of surviving articles distorted, using fabricated stories in the literature and media.

http://www.medievalhistories.com/harold-bluetooths-talisman-sensational-find-fake
https://www.academia.edu/9647410/A_unique_object_from_Harald_Bluetooth_s_time


Admiration & Learning of the Qur’an in Latin Europe


"The fact that, for example, the most widely read Latin version presented the text to readers in an elegantly written paraphrase that conformed to contemporary canons of elevated prose, and the fact that it sometimes circulated in expensively produced manuscripts commissioned by wealthy laymen, suggests that the Qur‘an—while seen always as a fraudulent revelation—was seen also as a text that deserved a certain amount of admiration."


Polemic, Philology, and Ambivalence: Reading the Qur’an in Latin Christendom*
AuthorsThomas E. Burman, Journal of Islamic Studies May 2004, Volume15(Issue2) Page p.181To-209


Arabic-English language Relationship is wide, deep and Ancient




E.g. The fruits apricots, oranges, lemons and limes, and the vegetables artichoke, spinach and aubergine (eggplant) all have Arabic names which are so strongly adapted they no longer sound foreign



"Arabic learning was widespread in medieval England from the 11th to the 13th century, and indeed beyond"


http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200702/from.arabic.to.english.htm

**********************************************************

British Isles details and landmarks in earliest Islamic maps.

As well as being an astronomer and a mathematician who founded algebra and algorithms, Mohammad bin Musa al-Khwarizi 780-850 was also a geographer. His book, Kitab Surat al-Ard (Face of Earth) includes a map of the world, the first of its kind. It details the British Isles, mentioning some British landmarks. This is another indication that Muslims had encounters with the British Isles as early as the eighth century.



Islamic Origin of European Democracy
"
Neither the Americans nor the French can take credit for the invention of modern democracy, Vannucci suggests. Rather Amari’s history of medieval Sicily identifies the origin of European democracy in the very substance of Islamic revelation – the “social democracy” that Islam demanded of believers – and finds democracy in practice in the Islamic states established in Mediterranean Europe (although Vannucci, like Amari, is interested only in the Sicilian example).
"
Page 23 ,  I nostri Saracini: Writing the History of the Arabs of Sicily
Journal Issue: California Italian Studies, 1(1) by Mallette, Karla

, University of Michigan, 2010 , California Italian Studies, Italian Studies Multicampus Research Group, UC Office of the President.


European Huguenots were Muslims

http://advancingrationalfaith.blogspot.ca/p/huguenots-anabaptists-were-they-muslims.html



Earlyeighteenth- century Newtonianism: the Huguenot contribution

 Jean-Franc¸ois Baillon

Stud. Hist. Phil. Sci. 35 (2004) 533–548

_____________________________________________________

Qur'an Was the Source of All Christian Source Literature Introduced in the World Including Europe

Before the Muslim Arab kingdoms of  south western Europe  including those in Sicily to Spain started to weaken and fall Quran was already well known in all over Europe. Modern Bible and Christian Testaments were being introduced using Quranic stories to convince people of their authencity because these were being seen as a new curiosity.

During those times in the wake of the first eastern crusades Modern Jewish and Trinitarian Christian religions as we know them today were coming on scene and were being introduced to Europeans. Quranic interpretations became a vehicle for communicating these new religious denominations to help them relate with the known past literature. Modern Jewish and Trinitarian Christian were presented to Europeans as descendants of  some of the pre-Islamic religions, People of the book, existing in the sixth century Madina contemporary to the time of prophet Mohammad which are mentioned in the Quran,  There were people in Europe who objected to this similitude claim and voiced their opposition:


"A further wilful blunder consisted in the rendering

of the phrase " People of the Book " in the Koran by
"Jews and Christians." The only people who can
furnish us with an account of the origin of the term
Jehudim are the doctors of the Synagogue ; and
certainly they have nothing to tell us concerning
Yahood at Medina in the time of the rise of Islam.


The only class of men who can historically explain the

term Christiani is the great Basilian and Benedictine
confederacy. The word is their own coinage. The
Koran knows nothing of Christiani. A fresh and
exact rendering of the book is sorely needed in the
interests of literary science.


When we come to the Koran with minds disabused

of the Mediaeval dishonesty, we find that the book is
nothing less than the original Bible, i.e., the source
of those legends of Origins which have been retold
by the Eabbins in Bible and Talmud. It is also the
source of the Catholic legend of Mary, mother of
Jesus, or, in their altered version, Mary, mother of
God. As this subject is so utterly misunderstood, we
subjoin a brief outline of the oracles of the Koran
and the connected Chronicle.
"
Pages 134-136 , Chapter THE TRADITIONS OF THE MOSQUE, in  THE RISE OF CHRISTENDOM, EDWIN JOHNSON, M.A. ,Professor of Classical Literature in New College, S. Hampstead
LONDON, KEG AN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER, & CO., Ltd , 1890. 


Currently existing Judaeo-Christian literature originated after 11th century from the Muslim literary sources.

Related References:

Rome's Responsibility for the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln - Brigadier General Thomas Harris

Brigadier General Thomas Harris served on the military commission that investigated and prosecuted conspirators in Lincoln's assassination. In 1897, he published "Rome's Responsibility for the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln," in which he assigned ultimate responsibility for Lincoln's murder to the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church mainly through their Jesuit (military) Order.

Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba is not an exception, all European Gothic Cathedrals began as Mosques

An Andalusi Muslim in Early Modern Europe: Shihab al-Din Ahmad al-Hajari’s Description of the 17th-Century Netherlands


Archaeologists identify Muslim graves found in south France, facing towards Mecca, are believed to date from the 7th century



http://www.egodeath.com/edwinjohnsonpaulineepistles.htm

Arnold, T., & Guillaume, A. (n.d). The Legacy of Islam. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hossein, N. S. (2001). Science And Civilization In Islam. Chicago: ABC International group, inc
Lucas, A. R. (2005). “Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe”,  Technology and Culture 46(1). Pp. 1 – 30.
Makdisi, John A. (1999), "The Islamic Origins of the Common Law", North Carolina Law Review 77 (5). Pp. 1635–1739

Tschanz, D. W. (2003). “Arab Roots of European Medicine”, Heart Views. 4.

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